This is the T5 disk for the 17th Century, 1600 to 1699. We know that there’s a time theme to this Time Trail, so it’s safe to say that we’ve got the development of the pendulum as the major feature:
(Image: © Copyright Gregory Williams (Flickr) and licensed for reuse under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0))
Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was the first to study the properties of pendulums, beginning around 1602.
Below that is the iconic cover of the Pink Floyd LP, Darkside of the Moon, from 1973. Or rather, the inspiration of that, the work of Isaac Newton and his use of a prism to split a beam of light. This crucial experiment has been dated to 1666 to 1672.
The skull with a pen in the top reminds me of Shakespeare and Hamlet, generally dated to between 1599 and 1602. And are those flames behind it all? That would be the Great Fire of London, which destroyed 70,000 houses in four days during September 1666. There may also be a hint of Guy Fawkes here, who planned to remove Parliament the quick way in 1605.
Just on the right hand side of the triangle, I’m puzzled by what looks like a bag falling from a few pieces of broken string. It could be a reference to Newton again, as his theory of gravitation was presented to the Royal Society in 1686.